Race Conditions/Front Running

Race Conditions/Front Running

The combination of external calls to other contracts and the multiuser nature of the underlying blockchain gives rise to a variety of potential Solidity pitfalls whereby users race code execution to obtain unexpected states. Reentrancy (discussed earlier ) is one...
External contract referencing Preventative Techniques

External contract referencing Preventative Techniques

Safe contracts can (in some cases) be deployed in such a way that they behave maliciously. An auditor could publicly verify a contract and have its owner deploy it in a malicious way, resulting in a publicly audited contract that has vulnerabilities or malicious...
Short Address Or Parameter Address

Short Address Or Parameter Address

The attack is not performed on Solidity contracts themselves, yet the third-party applications that may interact with them. This section is added for completeness and to give the reader an awareness of how parameters can be manipulated/controlled in contracts. “The...
External Contract Referencing

External Contract Referencing

The benefits of the Ethereum “world computer” is the ability to reuse code and interact with contracts already deployed on the network. As a result, a large number of contracts reference external contracts, usually via external message calls. These external message...
Entropy Illusion

Entropy Illusion

All transactions on the Ethereum blockchain are deterministic state transition operations. This indicates that every transaction modifies the global state of the Ethereum ecosystem in a calculable way, with no uncertainty. This has the fundamental implication that...
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